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Programming in C







THE C PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE WAS pioneered by Dennis Ritchie at AT&T Bell Laboratories in the early 1970s. It was not until the late 1970s, however, that this programming language began to gain widespread popularity and support.This was because until that time C compilers were not readily available for commercial use outside of Bell Laboratories. Initially, C’s growth in popularity was also spurred on in part by the equal, if not faster, growth in popularity of the Unix operating system.This operating system, which was also developed at Bell Laboratories, had C as its “standard” programming language. In fact, well over 90% of the operating system itself was written in the C language! The enormous success of the IBM PC and its look-alikes soon made MS-DOS the most popular environment for the C language.As C grew in popularity across different operating systems, more and more vendors hopped on the bandwagon and started marketing their own C compilers. For the most part, their version of the C language was based on an appendix found in the first C programming text—The C Programming Language—by Brian Kernighan and Dennis Ritchie. Unfortunately, this appendix did not provide a complete and unambiguous definition of C, meaning that vendors were left to interpret some aspects of the language on their own. In the early 1980s, a need was seen to standardize the definition of the C language. The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is the organization that handles such things, so in 1983 an ANSI C committee (called X3J11) was formed to standardize C. In 1989, the committee’s work was ratified, and in 1990, the first official ANSI standard definition of C was published. Because C is used around the world, the International Standard Organization (ISO) soon got involved.They adopted the standard, where it was called ISO/IEC 9899:1990. Since that time, additional changes have been made to the C language.The most recent standard was adopted in 1999. It is known as ANSI C99, or ISO/IEC 9899:1999. It is this version of the language upon which this book is based. C is a “higher-level language,” yet it provides capabilities that enable the user to “get in close” with the hardware and deal with the computer on a much lower level.





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Beginning Android® Programming with Android Studio






I first started playing with the Android Software Development Kit (SDK) before it was officially released as version 0.8. Back then, the tools were unpolished, the application programming interfaces (APIs) in the SDK were unstable, and the documentation was sparse. Android is now one of the most popular mobile operating systems in the world. Every day, more developers are trying Android development using Android Studio, either as a hobby or professionally. The current challenge for many beginning developers who want to move into the exciting world of android development is trying to determine where to start. It was with this challenge in mind that I was motivated to write this book, one that could benefit beginning Android programmers and enable them to write progressively more sophisticated applications. This book is written to help jump-start beginning Android developers, covering the necessary topics in a linear manner so that you can build on your knowledge without being overwhelmed by the details. I adopt the philosophy that the best way to learn is by doing. The numerous Try It Out sections in each chapter first show you how to build something. Then the follow-up How It Works sections explain how everything works. I have also taken this opportunity to further improve the previous edition of this book by addressing feedback from readers and adding additional topics that are important to beginning Android developers. Although Android programming is a huge topic, my aim for this book is threefold: to get you started with the fundamentals, to help you understand the underlying architecture of the SDK, and to appreciate why things are done in certain ways.
















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Python Programming: An Introduction to Computer Science








A modern computer might be defined as “a machine that stores and manipulates information under the control of a changeable program.” There are two key elements to this definition. The first is that computers are devices for manipulating information. This means that we can put information into a computer, and it can transform the information into new, useful forms, and then output or display the information for our interpretation. Computers are not the only machines that manipulate information. When you use a simple calculator to add up a column of numbers, you are entering information (the numbers) and the calculator is processing the information to compute a running sum which is then displayed. Another simple example is a gas pump. As you fill your tank, the pump uses certain inputs: the current price of gas per gallon and signals from a sensor that reads the rate of gas flowing into your car. The pump transforms this input into information about how much gas you took and how much money you owe. We would not consider either the calculator or the gas pump as full-fledged computers, although modern versions of these devices may actually contain embedded computers. They are different from computers in that they are built to perform a single, specific task. This is where the second part of our definition comes into the picture: computers operate under the control of a changeable program. What exactly does this mean? A computer program is a detailed, step-by-step set of instructions telling a computer exactly what to do. If we change the program, then the computer performs a different sequence of actions, and hence, performs a different task. It is this flexibility that allows your PC to be at one moment a word processor, at the next moment a financial planner, and later on, an arcade game. The machine stays the same, but the program controlling the machine changes.







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C Programming Absolute Beginner








ePUB is an open, industry-standard format for eBooks. However, support of ePUB and its many features varies across reading devices and applications. Use your device or app settings to customize the presentation to your liking. Settings that you can customize often include font, font size, single or double column, landscape or portrait mode, and figures that you can click or tap to enlarge. For additional information about the settings and features on your reading device or app, visit the device manufacturer’s Web site. Many titles include programming code or configuration examples. To optimize the presentation of these elements, view the eBook in single-column, landscape mode and adjust the font size to the smallest setting. In addition to presenting code and configurations in the reflowable text format, we have included images of the code that mimic the presentation found in the print book; therefore, where the reflowable format may compromise the presentation of the code listing, you will see a “Click here to view code image” link. Click the link to view the print-fidelity code image. To return to the previous page viewed, click the Back button on your device or app






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Programming for Dummies programming-for-dummies

 Programming for Dummies programming-for-dummies











This book is dedicated to anyone who wants to learn how to program a computer. Computer programming can be one of the most creative ways to express your ideas so if you have your heart set on writing programs for fun or profit, you’ve just joined a select group of fellow renegades, entrepreneurs, and hobbyists who find programming an enjoyable intellectual exercise. When lost in the world of programming, you can often elevate your spirit to lofty heights of pleasure and wind up crashing right back down to Earth again when a single syntax error causes your program to crash an entire computer. Welcome to the wonderful world of programming. You deserve to achieve whatever your mind can envision and your programming skills can create.





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The GNU C Programming Tutorial - C programming language






First figure out why you want the students to learn the subject and what you want them to know, and the method will result more or less by common sense. Richard Feynman Embedded software is in almost every electronic device in use today. There is software hidden away inside our watches, DVD players, mobile phones, antilock brakes, and even a few toasters. The military uses embedded software to guide missiles, detect enemy aircraft, and pilot UAVs. Communication




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Programming Embedded Systems, Second Edition with C




Though prognostications are difficult, it is absolutely clear that consumers will continue to demand everbrainier products requiring more microprocessors and huge increases in the corresponding software. Estimates suggest that the firmware content of most products doubles every 10 to 24 months. While the demand for more code is increasing, our productivity rates creep up only slowly. So it's also clear that the industry will need more embedded systems people in order to meet the demand. What skills will these people need? In the PC world, one must be a competent C/C++ programmer. But embedded developers must have a deep understanding of both the programming languages and the hardware itself; no one can design, code, and test an interrupt service routine, for instance, without knowing where the interrupts come from, how the hardware prioritizes them, the tricks behind servicing that hardware, and machine-level details about saving and preserving the system's context. A firmware developer must have detailed insight into the hardware implementation of his system's peripherals before he can write a single line of driver code. In the PC world, the magic of the hardware is hidden behind an extensive API. In an embedded system, that API is always written by the engineers that are developing the product. In this book, Michael Barr and Anthony Massa show how the software and hardware form a synergistic gestalt. They don't shy away from the intricacies of interrupts and I/O, or priority inversion and mutexes. The authors appropriately demonstrate building embedded systems using a variety of open source tools, including the GNU compiler suite, which is a standard tool widely used in this industry. eCos and Linux, both free/open source products, are used to demonstrate small and large operating systems. The original version of this book used an x86 target board, which has been replaced in this edition by an ARM-based product. Coincidently, as this volume was in production, Intel made an end-of-life announcement for all of its embedded x86 processors. Readers can be assured that the ARM will be around for a very long time, as it's supported by an enormous infrastructure of vendors. The hardware is inexpensive and easily available; the software is free. Together they represent the mainstream of embedded systems development. Readers can be sure they'll use these tools in the future. Buy the development kit, read the book, and execute the examples. You'll get the hands-on experience that employers demand: building and working with real embedded applications.






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